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  International Journal of Health and Life Sciences

[Expand] Volume 3 (2017)
[Expand] Volume 2 (2016)
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International Journal of Health and Life Sciences

Volume 3 ,Number 1 (2017) Articles 1 - 10
Articles
Page(s) 1-5
Hiwa Hossaini*, Shoeib Rahimi, Shahram Usefi
Abstract |      

From the standpoint of environmental protection and effective utilization of water resources, reuse of carwash water is an important issue around the world. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the source of water and its consumption rate in carwashes of Kermanshah metro-city were determined. In this manner by referring to the related guild, list of all active carwashes in Kermanshah city were collected, the city is divided into three regions and randomly 16 units in each region were selected for further investigation. Totally 48 carwash were surveyed and parameters like source of water, water consumption per car, type of used detergent, existence and type of wastewater treatment system were determined. The results showed that the well water (ground water) with 77.1% was the main source of water in the surveyed carwashes followed by treated tap water with 22.9%. 91.7% of the carwashes equipped with bar-screen and only in 35.4% of studied carwashes the grit removal unit was seen. All the carwashes discharged the wastewater to the municipal sewerage system without further treatment.
Page(s) 6-10
Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Behzad Karami-Matin, Farzad Jalilian*, Seyyed Nasrollah Hosseini
Abstract |      

Depression is one of the most common psychiatric diseases that are not limited to a specific time and place and impact all groups in the society. Aim of this study explores the relationship between depression and academic self-efficacy, and achievement among college student in Kermanshah University of medical sciences. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 373 students, in the west of Iran. Samples classified with the appropriate assignment done and gathering information from standard questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory Test & Academic Selfefficacy Scale). The data were analyzed by the SPSS-21 using t-test and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Based on beck depression inventory, 73.5%, 13.4%, 9.8%, and 3.3% of the respondents were normal, mild depression, moderate depression, and severe depression, respectively. Logistic regression showed; higher than 25 year and female students were the most influential predictors for depression. Academic achievement was significant correlation with academic self-efficacy (r=0.216), inversely and significantly associated with the depression (r=-0.469). Finally, academic self-efficacy, and depression were accounted for 24% of the variation in academic achievement (Adjusted R squared=0.24, F=49.270 & P<0.001). Considering the results of the present study, it seems that depression has a negative role in the academic self-efficacy and achievement.
Page(s) 11-12
Marius Sebastia Secula
Abstract |      

Due to increasing in world population and water shortage, wastewater is considered as one of the main important of water sources. Beside it is needed that the wastes to be treated for public health and environmental conservations. Traditional wastewater treatment technologies are served to treat the wastes and residues. But, it not enough and consumption energy can be decisive. However, effort to find new technologies with lower energy consumption is vital. To date, the bioelectrochemical technologies are either the generation of electricity from relatively cheap organic compounds along with the wastewater treatment. More explore in bioelectrochemical technologies leds to appearing the new process that it called as Bioelectrosynthesis or Microbial electrosynthesis (MES).
Page(s) 13-16
Seyedeh Houriye Fallah, Marziye KHorasani* et al.
Abstract |      

Peroxide is the immediate product of fatty materials oxidation. Generally, the more degree of unsaturated fat causes the more amounts of fat or fatty materials to prepare for oxidation. The study was a case-experimental research. Sixteen samples of consumed fat and 23 samples of unconsumed fat were sampled during three phases in different intervals at the end of work on the basis of the national standard (number 493). The effects of parameters such as fat temperature, heating time, type of fat consumption, and the type of cooking utensil were determined. The obtained samples were sent to the food stuffs laboratory and the peroxide number of the fats was evaluated on the basis of 4179 standard method. The data were analyzed by SPSS. The valuation of peroxide index in the research showed that there was a relationship between the amount of peroxide and temperature. It means that, the amount of peroxide increased by increasing temperature but there was no significant relationship between them ( p= 0.069). Moreover, there was a relationship between the kind of consumed oil and peroxide value but this relationship was not significant (p= 0.74). There was a significant relationship between the time of frying and peroxide value (p= 0.001). There was also a significant relationship between peroxide value and the kind of cooking utensil (p= 0.047). The results showed that there were many effective factors in increasing the amount of peroxide value such as temperature, time of frying, kind of consumed oil and kind of used utensil.
Page(s) 17-26
Murat Koçtaş, Selma Söyük, Canser Boz*
Abstract |      

Aim: This research aimed to evaluate the attitudes of healthcare professionals towards women managers. Method: This research was conducted using the general screening model. 122 healthcare professionals working in a public hospital affiliated to the Ministry of Health constitute consisted of this research sample. "Attitude Towards Women Managers Scale" was used as data collection tool. Findings: The average score of healthcare professional' attitudes towards women managers is higher in "Task Role Behaviors" sub-dimension than other sub-dimension. While the attitudes of healthcare professional to women managers differ according to gender, occupation and manager preference variables, there is no significant difference according to age, education, marital status and seniority. Women's healthcare professional' attitudes towards women managers were found to be more positive than men's healthcare professional in "Task Role Behaviors", "Relational Role Behaviors" and "Work Ethic" sub-dimensions. Conclusion: In the health sector, where the majority of women employees are in, it is thought that it will be beneficial to provide government support to raise the level of women in management at the same level as men, to develop and implement effective policies for them, and to make arrangements to support women as becoming managers.
Page(s) 27-35
Hooshyar Hossini
Abstract |      

In the past, the industrial sewage was discharged into the environment without considering its consequences. Alternatively, the increase in the human population and the industrial and economic growth has created several issues regarding environmental pollution, at present and for future. The textile industry is considered as main concerns by its environmental effects and hazardous wastes. The textile industry comprises a broad spectrum of units and generates large amount of wastewater containing several hazardous and toxic matters including heavy metals, pesticides, pigments and dyes (azo dyes), acids and soda, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Consequently, that can be created the environmental problems and several health effects such as cancers, allergies, and irritability. However, immediate approaches must be taken to prevent these issues. Based on literatures, the characteristics of wastewater streams that arise from different industrial units have been reviewed. The main concerns related to textile wastewaters include choosing the best technology and providing an appropriate treatment method. Most common successful treatment methods include using physicochemical and biological approaches.
Page(s) 36-43
Behrooz Hamzeh
Abstract |      

Depression is one of the most common secondary effects of HIV / AIDS that affects quality of life and treatment process which accelerates the progression of disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and its relationship with quality of life and physical activity in patients with HIV / AIDS. This cross-sectional study was done on 340 people with HIV / AIDS who refers to behavioral health counseling center of Kermanshah province. Using the Beck Depression Inventory, quality of life and physical activity were collected. The data were analyzed by chi-square test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, t-test, ANOVA and logistic regression analysis. The average age of participants was 38.53± 8.86 years. The average quality of life in the areas of physical health scores was 11.76±2.73, mental health was 11.10±2.70, Social Relations was 12.12±2.86 and environment health was11.16±2.19. Quality of life in mental health area of married individuals were more (11.63 ± 2.76) than singles (10.79 ± 2.60) significantly (p = 0.004). The social area score of married individuals (12.62 ± 2.78) were more than singles (11.71 ± 2.88) significantly (p = 0.002). The prevalence of depression was 61.01% with confidence interval of (55.80 – 66.22) which was more in men (66.04 %) than women (52.03%) (P=0.011). The risk of depression in men versus women's was 2.34 (OR= 2.52; CI=1.22 - 4.48). The findings of this study revealed the high prevalence of depression in people with HIV/AIDS which is notable and it has a role in decreasing the quality of life, particularly in the area of physical health and mental health. Recommending provide appropriate counseling to prevent and reduce depression in this group of people.
Page(s) 44-59
Vera Lúcia Raposo
Abstract |      

Off label prescription is common in Europe and economically motivated off label prescription is being increasingly recognised by the national laws of the Member States of the European Union, even though both European law and the European courts refute the prevalence of financial considerations over public health. This article examines the causes of economically motivated off label prescription, the current legislative and administrative measures implemented in several European countries and its consequences, and it concludes that in very specific scenarios off label prescription grounded in economic reasons should be allowed. Keywords: drugs, off label prescription, public health, austerity, European law Keywords drugs, off-label prescription, public health, austerity, European law
Page(s) 60-70
Maryam Nouri et al.
Abstract |      

The contribution of dietary factors to the development and prevention of non-communicable diseases is being increasingly recognized and the worldwide concern about chronic diseases is growing rapidly. Due to lack of a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) encompassing all kinds of foods for Iranians, this cross-sectional study aims to describe the relative validity and reproducibility of the FFQ used for assessing nutrient intakes of Iran urban population. One hundred thirteen subjects aged 20-69 years old from five major cities of Iran participated in this study. Dietary intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative FFQ involving 160 Iranian food items. Participants were asked to complete two FFQs (at the first and fourth months of the study) and three-day food records every month. Two blood and 24-h urine samples were collected at fifth and sixth months. The highest correlation coefficient in all FFQs was for fat (r=0.669; p<0.001) and the lowest one was for fiber (r=0.331; p=0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficients between nutrient intake estimated by the average of two FFQs and the average of food records ranged from 0.03 to 0.27. Pearson correlation coefficients between serum and urine biomarkers and nutrient intake estimated by the average of two FFQs ranged from -0.34 to 0.47. Bland and Altman analyses showed fairly good agreement between the average of the FFQs and food records for energy, fat, and potassium intakes. The obtained results indicated a reasonable validity considering energy, fat, and potassium intake evaluation and good reproducibility of the FFQ over a 6- month period.
Page(s) 71-74
Darsanj et al.
Abstract |      

The most effective and fundamental factors in educational environments for physical and mental growth and student learning are focusing on physical, health, and safety factors. Inattention to these facts can create adverse effects on the learning process and on students’ health. In this regard, the present study was conducted with the aim of determining the environmental health and safety standards of schools in Qasr-e-Shirin City in 2016 and 2017. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was carried out in 2016 and 2017. All men’s school of the city (10 places) was selected as study population. Sampling was done by census method. To collect the required information, a standard checklist was designed based on the Iranian School Health Regulations. The results showed that the 40% of schools were environmental healthily status, and 10% for safety. Also, favorable conditions for classroom environment were determined about 80%, and 100% of the school area was proportional to the number of students. The health conditions in the 90% of school buffets were undesirable. It was found that Qasr-e-Shirin’s schools had improper environmental health and safety standards, and consequently, these areas need serious attention from the educational and health departments.
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